One of greatest impacts upon legal history was the Code of Hammurabi at Babylon. It stands for the proposition that the law comes from a higher power and is given to the King. Not even the King is above the law.

BRENT'S OFFICE AT 1800 EAST MEMORIAL ROAD.  WE ALL MUST FOLLOW THE LAW.  BRENT HAS 40 YEARS EXPERIENCE HELPING  HIS CLIENTS STAY WITHIN THE LAW.

BRENT’S OFFICE AT 1800 EAST MEMORIAL ROAD. WE ALL MUST FOLLOW THE LAW. BRENT HAS 40 YEARS EXPERIENCE HELPING HIS CLIENTS STAY WITHIN THE LAW.

In addition to this lawyers today would recognize the major areas of our modern law set forth in the Code of Hammurabi. Commercial transactions between a buyer and a seller. The sanctity of the contract is validated. See numbers seven, thirty-seven, fifty-two, one-hundred twenty-two and three, one-hundred fifty-one and fifty-two.  Personal relations are protected by the law. Justice, although severe by our sensibility, is none-the-less promised by the Code of Hammurabi. The Code of Hammurabi also stands for the principle that the law is greater than anyone. It was handed down by a higher authority. In that case, the god Marduk is shown delivering the law to King Hammurabi. The god Marduk is more powerful and reigns over the earthly King Hammurabi. The King is less important. The authority for the law is that it was mandated by a higher authority.

What do you think of number five.  Would you want to be a judge under this code of law.  Make a mistake and that is it for you.

US SUPREME COURT BUILDING

UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, DC. A GOOD LAWYER USUALLY KEEPS HIS CLIENTS OUT OF THE COURTHOUSE!

Punishment for just about anything usually resulted in death.  How do you like the idea that if someone accuses someone, they shall be thrown in a river and if they make it they are not guilty and the person who accused him is put to death!

The Code of Hammurabi did provide for the right of inheritance.  See number one-hundred seventy-eight.  Trust transactions are also covered.  See numbers one-hundred two, one-hundred twelve,  one-hundred seventy-seven, two-hundred fifty-three,  and two-hundred sixty-four and five.

Supreme Court Building

United States Supreme Court Building. Even the Supreme Court recognizes the importance of the Code of Hammurabi!

{ THE CODE OF
HAMMURABI
Translated by L. W. King
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI
The text of this work is based on the 1915 translation by L. W.
King, which is now in the public domain. The typography and
formatting are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-
NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
Please send comments and suggestions for improvement to
Typographical.Society@gmail.com.
Revision : 1:2
PROLOGUE
When Anu the Sublime, King of the Anunaki, and Bel, the lord
of Heaven and earth, who decreed the fate of the land, assigned to
Marduk, the over-ruling son of Ea, God of righteousness, domin-
ion over earthly man, and made him great among the Igigi, they
called Babylon by his illustrious name, made it great on earth,
and founded an everlasting kingdom in it, whose foundations are
laid so solidly as those of heaven and earth; then Anu and Bel
called by name me, Hammurabi, the exalted prince, who feared
God, to bring about the rule of righteousness in the land, to de-
stroy the wicked and the evil-doers; so that the strong should not
harm the weak; so that I should rule over the black-headed people
like Shamash, and enlighten the land, to further the well-being
of mankind.
Hammurabi, the prince, called of Bel am I, making riches and
increase, enriching Nippur and Dur-ilu beyond compare, sublime
patron of E-kur; who reestablished Eridu and puri ed the worship
of E-apsu; who conquered the four quarters of the world, made
great the name of Babylon, rejoiced the heart of Marduk, his lord
who daily pays his devotions in Saggil; the royal scion whom Sin
made; who enriched Ur; the humble, the reverent, who brings
wealth to Gish-shir-gal; the white king, heard of Shamash, the
mighty, who again laid the foundations of Sippara; who clothed
the gravestones of Malkat with green; who made E-babbar great,
which is like the heavens, the warrior who guarded Larsa and
renewed E-babbar, with Shamash as his helper; the lord who
granted new life to Uruk, who brought plenteous water to its in-
habitants, raised the head of E-anna, and perfected the beauty of
Anu and Nana; shield of the land, who reunited the scattered in-
habitants of Isin; who richly endowed E-gal-mach; the protecting
king of the city, brother of the god Zamama; who rmly founded
the farms of Kish, crowned E-me-te-ursag with glory, redoubled
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 3
the great holy treasures of Nana, managed the temple of Harsag-
kalama; the grave of the enemy, whose help brought about the
victory; who increased the power of Cuthah; made all glorious in
E-shidlam, the black steer, who gored the enemy; beloved of the
god Nebo, who rejoiced the inhabitants of Borsippa, the Sublime;
who is indefatigable for E-zida; the divine king of the city; the
White, Wise; who broadened the elds of Dilbat, who heaped
up the harvests for Urash; the Mighty, the lord to whom come
scepter and crown, with which he clothes himself; the Elect of
Ma-ma; who xed the temple bounds of Kesh, who made rich
the holy feasts of Nin-tu; the provident, solicitous, who provided
food and drink for Lagash and Girsu, who provided large sacri -
cial o erings for the temple of Ningirsu; who captured the enemy,
the Elect of the oracle who ful lled the prediction of Hallab, who
rejoiced the heart of Anunit; the pure prince, whose prayer is ac-
cepted by Adad; who satis ed the heart of Adad, the warrior, in
Karkar, who restored the vessels for worship in E-ud-gal-gal; the
king who granted life to the city of Adab; the guide of E-mach;
the princely king of the city, the irresistible warrior, who granted
life to the inhabitants of Mashkanshabri, and brought abundance
to the temple of Shidlam; the White, Potent, who penetrated the
secret cave of the bandits, saved the inhabitants of Malka from
misfortune, and xed their home fast in wealth; who established
pure sacri cial gifts for Ea and Dam-gal-nun-na, who made his
kingdom everlastingly great; the princely king of the city, who
subjected the districts on the Ud-kib-nun-na Canal to the sway
of Dagon, his Creator; who spared the inhabitants of Mera and
Tutul; the sublime prince, who makes the face of Ninni shine; who
presents holy meals to the divinity of Nin-a-zu, who cared for its
inhabitants in their need, provided a portion for them in Babylon
in peace; the shepherd of the oppressed and of the slaves; whose
deeds nd favor before Anunit, who provided for Anunit in the
temple of Dumash in the suburb of Agade; who recognizes the
right, who rules by law; who gave back to the city of Ashur its
protecting god; who let the name of Ishtar of Nineveh remain in
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 4
E-mish-mish; the Sublime, who humbles himself before the great
gods; successor of Sumula-il; the mighty son of Sin-muballit; the
royal scion of Eternity; the mighty monarch, the sun of Babylon,
whose rays shed light over the land of Sumer and Akkad; the
king, obeyed by the four quarters of the world; Beloved of Ninni,
am I.
When Marduk sent me to rule over men, to give the protec-
tion of right to the land, I did right and righteousness in : : : , and
brought about the well-being of the oppressed.
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 5
CODE OF LAWS
1. If any one ensnare another, putting a ban upon him, but he
can not prove it, then he that ensnared him shall be put to
death.
2. If any one bring an accusation against a man, and the ac-
cused go to the river and leap into the river, if he sink in the
river his accuser shall take possession of his house. But if
the river prove that the accused is not guilty, and he escape
unhurt, then he who had brought the accusation shall be
put to death, while he who leaped into the river shall take
possession of the house that had belonged to his accuser.
3. If any one bring an accusation of any crime before the elders,
and does not prove what he has charged, he shall, if it be a
capital o ense charged, be put to death.
4. If he satisfy the elders to impose a ne of grain or money, he
shall receive the ne that the action produces.
5. If a judge try a case, reach a decision, and present his judg-
ment in writing; if later error shall appear in his decision,
and it be through his own fault, then he shall pay twelve
times the ne set by him in the case, and he shall be pub-
licly removed from the judge’s bench, and never again shall
he sit there to render judgement.
6. If any one steal the property of a temple or of the court,
he shall be put to death, and also the one who receives the
stolen thing from him shall be put to death.
7. If any one buy from the son or the slave of another man,
without witnesses or a contract, silver or gold, a male or
female slave, an ox or a sheep, an ass or anything, or if he
take it in charge, he is considered a thief and shall be put to
death.
8. If any one steal cattle or sheep, or an ass, or a pig or a
goat, if it belong to a god or to the court, the thief shall pay
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 6
thirtyfold therefor; if they belonged to a freed man of the
king he shall pay tenfold; if the thief has nothing with which
to pay he shall be put to death.
9. If any one lose an article, and nd it in the possession of
another: if the person in whose possession the thing is found
say \A merchant sold it to me, I paid for it before witnesses,”
and if the owner of the thing say, \I will bring witnesses who
know my property,” then shall the purchaser bring the mer-
chant who sold it to him, and the witnesses before whom he
bought it, and the owner shall bring witnesses who can iden-
tify his property. The judge shall examine their testimony{
both of the witnesses before whom the price was paid, and
of the witnesses who identify the lost article on oath. The
merchant is then proved to be a thief and shall be put to
death. The owner of the lost article receives his property,
and he who bought it receives the money he paid from the
estate of the merchant.
10. If the purchaser does not bring the merchant and the wit-
nesses before whom he bought the article, but its owner bring
witnesses who identify it, then the buyer is the thief and shall
be put to death, and the owner receives the lost article.
11. If the owner do not bring witnesses to identify the lost article,
he is an evil-doer, he has traduced, and shall be put to death.
12. If the witnesses be not at hand, then shall the judge set a
limit, at the expiration of six months. If his witnesses have
not appeared within the six months, he is an evil-doer, and
shall bear the ne of the pending case.
14. If any one steal the minor son of another, he shall be put to
death.
15. If any one take a male or female slave of the court, or a male
or female slave of a freed man, outside the city gates, he shall
be put to death.
16. If any one receive into his house a runaway male or female
slave of the court, or of a freedman, and does not bring it out
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 7
at the public proclamation of the major domus, the master
of the house shall be put to death.
17. If any one nd runaway male or female slaves in the open
country and bring them to their masters, the master of the
slaves shall pay him two shekels of silver.
18. If the slave will not give the name of the master, the nder
shall bring him to the palace; a further investigation must
follow, and the slave shall be returned to his master.
19. If he hold the slaves in his house, and they are caught there,
he shall be put to death.
20. If the slave that he caught run away from him, then shall he
swear to the owners of the slave, and he is free of all blame.
21. If any one break a hole into a house (break in to steal), he
shall be put to death before that hole and be buried.
22. If any one is committing a robbery and is caught, then he
shall be put to death.
23. If the robber is not caught, then shall he who was robbed
claim under oath the amount of his loss; then shall the com-
munity, and : : : on whose ground and territory and in whose
domain it was compensate him for the goods stolen.
24. If persons are stolen, then shall the community and : : : pay
one mina of silver to their relatives.
25. If re break out in a house, and some one who comes to put
it out cast his eye upon the property of the owner of the
house, and take the property of the master of the house, he
shall be thrown into that self-same re.
26. If a chieftain or a man (common soldier), who has been or-
dered to go upon the king’s highway for war does not go,
but hires a mercenary, if he withholds the compensation,
then shall this ocer or man be put to death, and he who
represented him shall take possession of his house.
27. If a chieftain or man be caught in the misfortune of the king
(captured in battle), and if his elds and garden be given to
another and he take possession, if he return and reaches his
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 8
place, his eld and garden shall be returned to him, he shall
take it over again.
28. If a chieftain or a man be caught in the misfortune of a king,
if his son is able to enter into possession, then the eld and
garden shall be given to him, he shall take over the fee of his
father.
29. If his son is still young, and can not take possession, a third
of the eld and garden shall be given to his mother, and she
shall bring him up.
30. If a chieftain or a man leave his house, garden, and eld and
hires it out, and some one else takes possession of his house,
garden, and eld and uses it for three years: if the rst owner
return and claims his house, garden, and eld, it shall not
be given to him, but he who has taken possession of it and
used it shall continue to use it.
31. If he hire it out for one year and then return, the house,
garden, and eld shall be given back to him, and he shall
take it over again.
32. If a chieftain or a man is captured on the \Way of the King”
(in war), and a merchant buy him free, and bring him back
to his place; if he have the means in his house to buy his
freedom, he shall buy himself free: if he have nothing in his
house with which to buy himself free, he shall be bought free
by the temple of his community; if there be nothing in the
temple with which to buy him free, the court shall buy his
freedom. His eld, garden, and house shall not be given for
the purchase of his freedom.
33. If a : : : or a : : : enter himself as withdrawn from the \Way of
the King,” and send a mercenary as substitute, but withdraw
him, then the : : : or : : : shall be put to death.
34. If a : : : or a : : : harm the property of a captain, injure the
captain, or take away from the captain a gift presented to
him by the king, then the : : : or : : : shall be put to death.
35. If any one buy the cattle or sheep which the king has given
to chieftains from him, he loses his money.
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 9
36. The eld, garden, and house of a chieftain, of a man, or of
one subject to quit-rent, can not be sold.
37. If any one buy the eld, garden, and house of a chieftain,
man, or one subject to quit-rent, his contract tablet of sale
shall be broken (declared invalid) and he loses his money.
The eld, garden, and house return to their owners.
38. A chieftain, man, or one subject to quit-rent can not assign
his tenure of eld, house, and garden to his wife or daughter,
nor can he assign it for a debt.
39. He may, however, assign a eld, garden, or house which he
has bought, and holds as property, to his wife or daughter
or give it for debt.
40. He may sell eld, garden, and house to a merchant (royal
agents) or to any other public ocial, the buyer holding eld,
house, and garden for its usufruct.
41. If any one fence in the eld, garden, and house of a chief-
tain, man, or one subject to quit-rent, furnishing the palings
therefor; if the chieftain, man, or one subject to quit-rent
return to eld, garden, and house, the palings which were
given to him become his property.
42. If any one take over a eld to till it, and obtain no harvest
therefrom, it must be proved that he did no work on the
eld, and he must deliver grain, just as his neighbor raised,
to the owner of the eld.
43. If he do not till the eld, but let it lie fallow, he shall give
grain like his neighbor’s to the owner of the eld, and the
eld which he let lie fallow he must plow and sow and return
to its owner.
44. If any one take over a waste-lying eld to make it arable, but
is lazy, and does not make it arable, he shall plow the fallow
eld in the fourth year, harrow it and till it, and give it back
to its owner, and for each ten gan (a measure of area) ten
gur of grain shall be paid.
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 10
45. If a man rent his eld for tillage for a xed rental, and receive
the rent of his eld, but bad weather come and destroy the
harvest, the injury falls upon the tiller of the soil.
46. If he do not receive a xed rental for his eld, but lets it on
half or third shares of the harvest, the grain on the eld shall
be divided proportionately between the tiller and the owner.
47. If the tiller, because he did not succeed in the rst year,
has had the soil tilled by others, the owner may raise no
objection; the eld has been cultivated and he receives the
harvest according to agreement.
48. If any one owe a debt for a loan, and a storm prostrates the
grain, or the harvest fail, or the grain does not grow for lack
of water; in that year he need not give his creditor any grain,
he washes his debt-tablet in water and pays no rent for this
year.
49. If any one take money from a merchant, and give the mer-
chant a eld tillable for corn or sesame and order him to
plant corn or sesame in the eld, and to harvest the crop; if
the cultivator plant corn or sesame in the eld, at the har-
vest the corn or sesame that is in the eld shall belong to
the owner of the eld and he shall pay corn as rent, for the
money he received from the merchant, and the livelihood of
the cultivator shall he give to the merchant.
50. If he give a cultivated corn- eld or a cultivated sesame- eld,
the corn or sesame in the eld shall belong to the owner of
the eld, and he shall return the money to the merchant as
rent.
51. If he have no money to repay, then he shall pay in corn or
sesame in place of the money as rent for what he received
from the merchant, according to the royal tari .
52. If the cultivator do not plant corn or sesame in the eld, the
debtor’s contract is not weakened.
53. If any one be too lazy to keep his dam in proper condition,
and does not so keep it; if then the dam break and all the
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 11
elds be ooded, then shall he in whose dam the break oc-
curred be sold for money, and the money shall replace the
corn which he has caused to be ruined.
54. If he be not able to replace the corn, then he and his posses-
sions shall be divided among the farmers whose corn he has
ooded.
55. If any one open his ditches to water his crop, but is careless,
and the water ood the eld of his neighbor, then he shall
pay his neighbor corn for his loss.
56. If a man let in the water, and the water over ow the plan-
tation of his neighbor, he shall pay ten gur of corn for every
ten gan of land.
57. If a shepherd, without the permission of the owner of the
eld, and without the knowledge of the owner of the sheep,
lets the sheep into a eld to graze, then the owner of the eld
shall harvest his crop, and the shepherd, who had pastured
his ock there without permission of the owner of the eld,
shall pay to the owner twenty gur of corn for every ten gan.
58. If after the ocks have left the pasture and been shut up
in the common fold at the city gate, any shepherd let them
into a eld and they graze there, this shepherd shall take
possession of the eld which he has allowed to be grazed on,
and at the harvest he must pay sixty gur of corn for every
ten gan.
59. If any man, without the knowledge of the owner of a garden,
fell a tree in a garden he shall pay half a mina in money.
60. If any one give over a eld to a gardener, for him to plant it
as a garden, if he work at it, and care for it for four years,
in the fth year the owner and the gardener shall divide it,
the owner taking his part in charge.
61. If the gardener has not completed the planting of the eld,
leaving one part unused, this shall be assigned to him as his.
62. If he do not plant the eld that was given over to him as a
garden, if it be arable land (for corn or sesame) the gardener
shall pay the owner the produce of the eld for the years that
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 12
he let it lie fallow, according to the product of neighboring
elds, put the eld in arable condition and return it to its
owner.
63. If he transform waste land into arable elds and return it to
its owner, the latter shall pay him for one year ten gur for
ten gan.
64. If any one hand over his garden to a gardener to work, the
gardener shall pay to its owner two-thirds of the produce of
the garden, for so long as he has it in possession, and the
other third shall he keep.
65. If the gardener do not work in the garden and the product fall
o , the gardener shall pay in proportion to other neighboring
gardens. [Here a portion of the text is missing, apparently
comprising thirty-four paragraphs.]
100. : : : interest for the money, as much as he has received, he
shall give a note therefor, and on the day, when they settle,
pay to the merchant.
101. If there are no mercantile arrangements in the place whither
he went, he shall leave the entire amount of money which he
received with the broker to give to the merchant.
102. If a merchant entrust money to an agent (broker) for some
investment, and the broker su er a loss in the place to which
he goes, he shall make good the capital to the merchant.
103. If, while on the journey, an enemy take away from him any-
thing that he had, the broker shall swear by God and be free
of obligation.
104. If a merchant give an agent corn, wool, oil, or any other goods
to transport, the agent shall give a receipt for the amount,
and compensate the merchant therefor. Then he shall obtain
a receipt form the merchant for the money that he gives the
merchant.
105. If the agent is careless, and does not take a receipt for the
money which he gave the merchant, he can not consider the
unreceipted money as his own.
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 13
106. If the agent accept money from the merchant, but have a
quarrel with the merchant (denying the receipt), then shall
the merchant swear before God and witnesses that he has
given this money to the agent, and the agent shall pay him
three times the sum.
107. If the merchant cheat the agent, in that as the latter has
returned to him all that had been given him, but the mer-
chant denies the receipt of what had been returned to him,
then shall this agent convict the merchant before God and
the judges, and if he still deny receiving what the agent had
given him shall pay six times the sum to the agent.
108. If a tavern-keeper (feminine) does not accept corn according
to gross weight in payment of drink, but takes money, and
the price of the drink is less than that of the corn, she shall
be convicted and thrown into the water.
109. If conspirators meet in the house of a tavern-keeper, and
these conspirators are not captured and delivered to the
court, the tavern-keeper shall be put to death.
110. If a \sister of a god” open a tavern, or enter a tavern to
drink, then shall this woman be burned to death.
111. If an inn-keeper furnish sixty ka of usakani-drink to : : : she
shall receive fty ka of corn at the harvest.
112. If any one be on a journey and entrust silver, gold, precious
stones, or any movable property to another, and wish to
recover it from him; if the latter do not bring all of the
property to the appointed place, but appropriate it to his
own use, then shall this man, who did not bring the property
to hand it over, be convicted, and he shall pay vefold for
all that had been entrusted to him.
113. If any one have consignment of corn or money, and he take
from the granary or box without the knowledge of the owner,
then shall he who took corn without the knowledge of the
owner out of the granary or money out of the box be legally
convicted, and repay the corn he has taken. And he shall
lose whatever commission was paid to him, or due him.
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 14
114. If a man have no claim on another for corn and money, and
try to demand it by force, he shall pay one-third of a mina
of silver in every case.
115. If any one have a claim for corn or money upon another and
imprison him; if the prisoner die in prison a natural death,
the case shall go no further.
116. If the prisoner die in prison from blows or maltreatment, the
master of the prisoner shall convict the merchant before the
judge. If he was a free-born man, the son of the merchant
shall be put to death; if it was a slave, he shall pay one-third
of a mina of gold, and all that the master of the prisoner
gave he shall forfeit.
117. If any one fail to meet a claim for debt, and sell himself, his
wife, his son, and daughter for money or give them away to
forced labor: they shall work for three years in the house
of the man who bought them, or the proprietor, and in the
fourth year they shall be set free.
118. If he give a male or female slave away for forced labor, and
the merchant sublease them, or sell them for money, no ob-
jection can be raised.
119. If any one fail to meet a claim for debt, and he sell the maid
servant who has borne him children, for money, the money
which the merchant has paid shall be repaid to him by the
owner of the slave and she shall be freed.
120. If any one store corn for safe keeping in another person’s
house, and any harm happen to the corn in storage, or if
the owner of the house open the granary and take some of
the corn, or if especially he deny that the corn was stored
in his house: then the owner of the corn shall claim his corn
before God (on oath), and the owner of the house shall pay
its owner for all of the corn that he took.
121. If any one store corn in another man’s house he shall pay
him storage at the rate of one gur for every ve ka of corn
per year.
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 15
122. If any one give another silver, gold, or anything else to keep,
he shall show everything to some witness, draw up a contract,
and then hand it over for safe keeping.
123. If he turn it over for safe keeping without witness or contract,
and if he to whom it was given deny it, then he has no
legitimate claim.
124. If any one deliver silver, gold, or anything else to another
for safe keeping, before a witness, but he deny it, he shall be
brought before a judge, and all that he has denied he shall
pay in full.
125. If any one place his property with another for safe keeping,
and there, either through thieves or robbers, his property
and the property of the other man be lost, the owner of
the house, through whose neglect the loss took place, shall
compensate the owner for all that was given to him in charge.
But the owner of the house shall try to follow up and recover
his property, and take it away from the thief.
126. If any one who has not lost his goods state that they have
been lost, and make false claims: if he claim his goods and
amount of injury before God, even though he has not lost
them, he shall be fully compensated for all his loss claimed.
(I.e., the oath is all that is needed.)
127. If any one \point the nger” (slander) at a sister of a god or
the wife of any one, and can not prove it, this man shall be
taken before the judges and his brow shall be marked. (by
cutting the skin, or perhaps hair.)
128. If a man take a woman to wife, but have no intercourse with
her, this woman is no wife to him.
129. If a man’s wife be surprised (in agrante delicto) with an-
other man, both shall be tied and thrown into the water, but
the husband may pardon his wife and the king his slaves.
130. If a man violate the wife (betrothed or child-wife) of another
man, who has never known a man, and still lives in her fa-
ther’s house, and sleep with her and be surprised, this man
shall be put to death, but the wife is blameless.
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 16
131. If a man bring a charge against one’s wife, but she is not
surprised with another man, she must take an oath and then
may return to her house.
132. If the \ nger is pointed” at a man’s wife about another man,
but she is not caught sleeping with the other man, she shall
jump into the river for her husband.
133. If a man is taken prisoner in war, and there is a sustenance
in his house, but his wife leave house and court, and go to
another house: because this wife did not keep her court, and
went to another house, she shall be judicially condemned and
thrown into the water.
134. If any one be captured in war and there is not sustenance in
his house, if then his wife go to another house this woman
shall be held blameless.
135. If a man be taken prisoner in war and there be no sustenance
in his house and his wife go to another house and bear chil-
dren; and if later her husband return and come to his home:
then this wife shall return to her husband, but the children
follow their father.
136. If any one leave his house, run away, and then his wife go to
another house, if then he return, and wishes to take his wife
back: because he ed from his home and ran away, the wife
of this runaway shall not return to her husband.
137. If a man wish to separate from a woman who has borne him
children, or from his wife who has borne him children: then
he shall give that wife her dowry, and a part of the usufruct of
eld, garden, and property, so that she can rear her children.
When she has brought up her children, a portion of all that
is given to the children, equal as that of one son, shall be
given to her. She may then marry the man of her heart.
138. If a man wishes to separate from his wife who has borne him
no children, he shall give her the amount of her purchase
money and the dowry which she brought from her father’s
house, and let her go.
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 17
139. If there was no purchase price he shall give her one mina of
gold as a gift of release.
140. If he be a freed man he shall give her one-third of a mina of
gold.
141. If a man’s wife, who lives in his house, wishes to leave it,
plunges into debt, tries to ruin her house, neglects her hus-
band, and is judicially convicted: if her husband o er her
release, she may go on her way, and he gives her nothing as
a gift of release. If her husband does not wish to release her,
and if he take another wife, she shall remain as servant in
her husband’s house.
142. If a woman quarrel with her husband, and say: \You are
not congenial to me,” the reasons for her prejudice must be
presented. If she is guiltless, and there is no fault on her
part, but he leaves and neglects her, then no guilt attaches
to this woman, she shall take her dowry and go back to her
father’s house.
143. If she is not innocent, but leaves her husband, and ruins her
house, neglecting her husband, this woman shall be cast into
the water.
144. If a man take a wife and this woman give her husband a
maid-servant, and she bear him children, but this man wishes
to take another wife, this shall not be permitted to him; he
shall not take a second wife.
145. If a man take a wife, and she bear him no children, and he
intend to take another wife: if he take this second wife, and
bring her into the house, this second wife shall not be allowed
equality with his wife.
146. If a man take a wife and she give this man a maid-servant as
wife and she bear him children, and then this maid assume
equality with the wife: because she has borne him children
her master shall not sell her for money, but he may keep her
as a slave, reckoning her among the maid-servants.
147. If she have not borne him children, then her mistress may
sell her for money.
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 18
148. If a man take a wife, and she be seized by disease, if he then
desire to take a second wife he shall not put away his wife,
who has been attacked by disease, but he shall keep her in
the house which he has built and support her so long as she
lives.
149. If this woman does not wish to remain in her husband’s
house, then he shall compensate her for the dowry that she
brought with her from her father’s house, and she may go.
150. If a man give his wife a eld, garden, and house and a deed
therefor, if then after the death of her husband the sons raise
no claim, then the mother may bequeath all to one of her sons
whom she prefers, and need leave nothing to his brothers.
151. If a woman who lived in a man’s house made an agreement
with her husband, that no creditor can arrest her, and has
given a document therefor: if that man, before he married
that woman, had a debt, the creditor can not hold the woman
for it. But if the woman, before she entered the man’s house,
had contracted a debt, her creditor can not arrest her hus-
band therefor.
152. If after the woman had entered the man’s house, both con-
tracted a debt, both must pay the merchant.
153. If the wife of one man on account of another man has their
mates (her husband and the other man’s wife) murdered,
both of them shall be impaled.
154. If a man be guilty of incest with his daughter, he shall be
driven from the place (exiled).
155. If a man betroth a girl to his son, and his son have intercourse
with her, but he (the father) afterward de le her, and be
surprised, then he shall be bound and cast into the water
(drowned).
156. If a man betroth a girl to his son, but his son has not known
her, and if then he de le her, he shall pay her half a gold
mina, and compensate her for all that she brought out of her
father’s house. She may marry the man of her heart.
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 19
157. If any one be guilty of incest with his mother after his father,
both shall be burned.
158. If any one be surprised after his father with his chief wife,
who has borne children, he shall be driven out of his father’s
house.
159. If any one, who has brought chattels into his father-in-law’s
house, and has paid the purchase-money, looks for another
wife, and says to his father-in-law: \I do not want your
daughter,” the girl’s father may keep all that he had brought.
160. If a man bring chattels into the house of his father-in-law,
and pay the \purchase price” (for his wife): if then the father
of the girl say: \I will not give you my daughter,” he shall
give him back all that he brought with him.
161. If a man bring chattels into his father-in-law’s house and
pay the \purchase price,” if then his friend slander him, and
his father-in-law say to the young husband: \You shall not
marry my daughter,” the he shall give back to him undimin-
ished all that he had brought with him; but his wife shall
not be married to the friend.
162. If a man marry a woman, and she bear sons to him; if then
this woman die, then shall her father have no claim on her
dowry; this belongs to her sons.
163. If a man marry a woman and she bear him no sons; if then
this woman die, if the \purchase price” which he had paid
into the house of his father-in-law is repaid to him, her hus-
band shall have no claim upon the dowry of this woman; it
belongs to her father’s house.
164. If his father-in-law do not pay back to him the amount of the
\purchase price” he may subtract the amount of the \Pur-
chase price” from the dowry, and then pay the remainder to
her father’s house.
165. If a man give to one of his sons whom he prefers a eld,
garden, and house, and a deed therefor: if later the father
die, and the brothers divide the estate, then they shall rst
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 20
give him the present of his father, and he shall accept it; and
the rest of the paternal property shall they divide.
166. If a man take wives for his son, but take no wife for his
minor son, and if then he die: if the sons divide the estate,
they shall set aside besides his portion the money for the
\purchase price” for the minor brother who had taken no
wife as yet, and secure a wife for him.
167. If a man marry a wife and she bear him children: if this wife
die and he then take another wife and she bear him children:
if then the father die, the sons must not partition the estate
according to the mothers, they shall divide the dowries of
their mothers only in this way; the paternal estate they shall
divide equally with one another.
168. If a man wish to put his son out of his house, and declare
before the judge: \I want to put my son out,” then the judge
shall examine into his reasons. If the son be guilty of no great
fault, for which he can be rightfully put out, the father shall
not put him out.
169. If he be guilty of a grave fault, which should rightfully deprive
him of the lial relationship, the father shall forgive him the
rst time; but if he be guilty of a grave fault a second time
the father may deprive his son of all lial relation.
170. If his wife bear sons to a man, or his maid-servant have borne
sons, and the father while still living says to the children
whom his maid-servant has borne: \My sons,” and he count
them with the sons of his wife; if then the father die, then
the sons of the wife and of the maid-servant shall divide the
paternal property in common. The son of the wife is to
partition and choose.
171. If, however, the father while still living did not say to the
sons of the maid-servant: \My sons,” and then the father
dies, then the sons of the maid-servant shall not share with
the sons of the wife, but the freedom of the maid and her sons
shall be granted. The sons of the wife shall have no right to
enslave the sons of the maid; the wife shall take her dowry
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 21
(from her father), and the gift that her husband gave her and
deeded to her (separate from dowry, or the purchase-money
paid her father), and live in the home of her husband: so long
as she lives she shall use it, it shall not be sold for money.
Whatever she leaves shall belong to her children.
172. If her husband made her no gift, she shall be compensated for
her gift, and she shall receive a portion from the estate of her
husband, equal to that of one child. If her sons oppress her,
to force her out of the house, the judge shall examine into
the matter, and if the sons are at fault the woman shall not
leave her husband’s house. If the woman desire to leave the
house, she must leave to her sons the gift which her husband
gave her, but she may take the dowry of her father’s house.
Then she may marry the man of her heart.
173. If this woman bear sons to her second husband, in the place
to which she went, and then die, her earlier and later sons
shall divide the dowry between them.
174. If she bear no sons to her second husband, the sons of her
rst husband shall have the dowry.
175. If a State slave or the slave of a freed man marry the daughter
of a free man, and children are born, the master of the slave
shall have no right to enslave the children of the free.
176. If, however, a State slave or the slave of a freed man marry a
man’s daughter, and after he marries her she bring a dowry
from a father’s house, if then they both enjoy it and found a
household, and accumulate means, if then the slave die, then
she who was free born may take her dowry, and all that her
husband and she had earned; she shall divide them into two
parts, one-half the master for the slave shall take, and the
other half shall the free-born woman take for her children. If
the free-born woman had no gift she shall take all that her
husband and she had earned and divide it into two parts;
and the master of the slave shall take one-half and she shall
take the other for her children.
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 22
177. If a widow, whose children are not grown, wishes to enter
another house (remarry), she shall not enter it without the
knowledge of the judge. If she enter another house the judge
shall examine the state of the house of her rst husband.
Then the house of her rst husband shall be entrusted to the
second husband and the woman herself as managers. And
a record must be made thereof. She shall keep the house
in order, bring up the children, and not sell the house-hold
utensils. He who buys the utensils of the children of a widow
shall lose his money, and the goods shall return to their own-
ers.
178. If a \devoted woman” or a prostitute to whom her father
has given a dowry and a deed therefor, but if in this deed it
is not stated that she may bequeath it as she pleases, and
has not explicitly stated that she has the right of disposal;
if then her father die, then her brothers shall hold her eld
and garden, and give her corn, oil, and milk according to
her portion, and satisfy her. If her brothers do not give her
corn, oil, and milk according to her share, then her eld and
garden shall support her. She shall have the usufruct of eld
and garden and all that her father gave her so long as she
lives, but she can not sell or assign it to others. Her position
of inheritance belongs to her brothers.
179. If a \sister of a god,” or a prostitute, receive a gift from her
father, and a deed in which it has been explicitly stated that
she may dispose of it as she pleases, and give her complete
disposition thereof: if then her father die, then she may leave
her property to whomsoever she pleases. Her brothers can
raise no claim thereto.
180. If a father give a present to his daughter{either marriageable
or a prostitute unmarriageable){and then die, then she is to
receive a portion as a child from the paternal estate, and
enjoy its usufruct so long as she lives. Her estate belongs to
her brothers.
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 23
181. If a father devote a temple-maid or temple-virgin to God
and give her no present: if then the father die, she shall
receive the third of a child’s portion from the inheritance of
her father’s house, and enjoy its usufruct so long as she lives.
Her estate belongs to her brothers.
182. If a father devote his daughter as a wife of Mardi of Babylon
(as in 181), and give her no present, nor a deed; if then her
father die, then shall she receive one-third of her portion as
a child of her father’s house from her brothers, but Marduk
may leave her estate to whomsoever she wishes.
183. If a man give his daughter by a concubine a dowry, and a
husband, and a deed; if then her father die, she shall receive
no portion from the paternal estate.
184. If a man do not give a dowry to his daughter by a concubine,
and no husband; if then her father die, her brother shall give
her a dowry according to her father’s wealth and secure a
husband for her.
185. If a man adopt a child and to his name as son, and rear him,
this grown son can not be demanded back again.
186. If a man adopt a son, and if after he has taken him he injure
his foster father and mother, then this adopted son shall
return to his father’s house.
187. The son of a paramour in the palace service, or of a prosti-
tute, can not be demanded back.
188. If an artizan has undertaken to rear a child and teaches him
his craft, he can not be demanded back.
189. If he has not taught him his craft, this adopted son may
return to his father’s house.
190. If a man does not maintain a child that he has adopted as a
son and reared with his other children, then his adopted son
may return to his father’s house.
191. If a man, who had adopted a son and reared him, founded
a household, and had children, wish to put this adopted son
out, then this son shall not simply go his way. His adoptive
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 24
father shall give him of his wealth one-third of a child’s por-
tion, and then he may go. He shall not give him of the eld,
garden, and house.
192. If a son of a paramour or a prostitute say to his adoptive
father or mother: \You are not my father, or my mother,”
his tongue shall be cut o .
193. If the son of a paramour or a prostitute desire his father’s
house, and desert his adoptive father and adoptive mother,
and goes to his father’s house, then shall his eye be put out.
194. If a man give his child to a nurse and the child die in her
hands, but the nurse unbeknown to the father and mother
nurse another child, then they shall convict her of having
nursed another child without the knowledge of the father
and mother and her breasts shall be cut o .
195. If a son strike his father, his hands shall be hewn o .
196. If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put
out. [ An eye for an eye ]
197. If he break another man’s bone, his bone shall be broken.
198. If he put out the eye of a freed man, or break the bone of a
freed man, he shall pay one gold mina.
199. If he put out the eye of a man’s slave, or break the bone of
a man’s slave, he shall pay one-half of its value.
200. If a man knock out the teeth of his equal, his teeth shall be
knocked out. [ A tooth for a tooth ]
201. If he knock out the teeth of a freed man, he shall pay one-
third of a gold mina.
202. If any one strike the body of a man higher in rank than he,
he shall receive sixty blows with an ox-whip in public.
203. If a free-born man strike the body of another free-born man
or equal rank, he shall pay one gold mina.
204. If a freed man strike the body of another freed man, he shall
pay ten shekels in money.
205. If the slave of a freed man strike the body of a freed man,
his ear shall be cut o .
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 25
206. If during a quarrel one man strike another and wound him,
then he shall swear, \I did not injure him wittingly,” and
pay the physicians.
207. If the man die of his wound, he shall swear similarly, and if
he (the deceased) was a free-born man, he shall pay half a
mina in money.
208. If he was a freed man, he shall pay one-third of a mina.
209. If a man strike a free-born woman so that she lose her unborn
child, he shall pay ten shekels for her loss.
210. If the woman die, his daughter shall be put to death.
211. If a woman of the free class lose her child by a blow, he shall
pay ve shekels in money.
212. If this woman die, he shall pay half a mina.
213. If he strike the maid-servant of a man, and she lose her child,
he shall pay two shekels in money.
214. If this maid-servant die, he shall pay one-third of a mina.
215. If a physician make a large incision with an operating knife
and cure it, or if he open a tumor (over the eye) with an
operating knife, and saves the eye, he shall receive ten shekels
in money.
216. If the patient be a freed man, he receives ve shekels.
217. If he be the slave of some one, his owner shall give the physi-
cian two shekels.
218. If a physician make a large incision with the operating knife,
and kill him, or open a tumor with the operating knife, and
cut out the eye, his hands shall be cut o .
219. If a physician make a large incision in the slave of a freed
man, and kill him, he shall replace the slave with another
slave.
220. If he had opened a tumor with the operating knife, and put
out his eye, he shall pay half his value.
221. If a physician heal the broken bone or diseased soft part of
a man, the patient shall pay the physician ve shekels in
money.
222. If he were a freed man he shall pay three shekels.
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 26
223. If he were a slave his owner shall pay the physician two
shekels.
224. If a veterinary surgeon perform a serious operation on an
ass or an ox, and cure it, the owner shall pay the surgeon
one-sixth of a shekel as a fee.
225. If he perform a serious operation on an ass or ox, and kill it,
he shall pay the owner one-fourth of its value.
226. If a barber, without the knowledge of his master, cut the
sign of a slave on a slave not to be sold, the hands of this
barber shall be cut o .
227. If any one deceive a barber, and have him mark a slave not
for sale with the sign of a slave, he shall be put to death,
and buried in his house. The barber shall swear: \I did not
mark him wittingly,” and shall be guiltless.
228. If a builder build a house for some one and complete it, he
shall give him a fee of two shekels in money for each sar of
surface.
229. If a builder build a house for some one, and does not con-
struct it properly, and the house which he built fall in and
kill its owner, then that builder shall be put to death.
230. If it kill the son of the owner the son of that builder shall be
put to death.
231. If it kill a slave of the owner, then he shall pay slave for slave
to the owner of the house.
232. If it ruin goods, he shall make compensation for all that has
been ruined, and inasmuch as he did not construct properly
this house which he built and it fell, he shall re-erect the
house from his own means.
233. If a builder build a house for some one, even though he has
not yet completed it; if then the walls seem toppling, the
builder must make the walls solid from his own means.
234. If a shipbuilder build a boat of sixty gur for a man, he shall
pay him a fee of two shekels in money.
235. If a shipbuilder build a boat for some one, and do not make
it tight, if during that same year that boat is sent away and
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 27
su ers injury, the shipbuilder shall take the boat apart and
put it together tight at his own expense. The tight boat he
shall give to the boat owner.
236. If a man rent his boat to a sailor, and the sailor is careless,
and the boat is wrecked or goes aground, the sailor shall give
the owner of the boat another boat as compensation.
237. If a man hire a sailor and his boat, and provide it with corn,
clothing, oil and dates, and other things of the kind needed
for tting it: if the sailor is careless, the boat is wrecked, and
its contents ruined, then the sailor shall compensate for the
boat which was wrecked and all in it that he ruined.
238. If a sailor wreck any one’s ship, but saves it, he shall pay the
half of its value in money.
239. If a man hire a sailor, he shall pay him six gur of corn per
year.
240. If a merchantman run against a ferryboat, and wreck it, the
master of the ship that was wrecked shall seek justice before
God; the master of the merchantman, which wrecked the
ferryboat, must compensate the owner for the boat and all
that he ruined.
241. If any one impresses an ox for forced labor, he shall pay
one-third of a mina in money.
242. If any one hire oxen for a year, he shall pay four gur of corn
for plow-oxen.
243. As rent of herd cattle he shall pay three gur of corn to the
owner.
244. If any one hire an ox or an ass, and a lion kill it in the eld,
the loss is upon its owner.
245. If any one hire oxen, and kill them by bad treatment or
blows, he shall compensate the owner, oxen for oxen.
246. If a man hire an ox, and he break its leg or cut the ligament
of its neck, he shall compensate the owner with ox for ox.
247. If any one hire an ox, and put out its eye, he shall pay the
owner one-half of its value.
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 28
248. If any one hire an ox, and break o a horn, or cut o its
tail, or hurt its muzzle, he shall pay one-fourth of its value
in money.
249. If any one hire an ox, and God strike it that it die, the man
who hired it shall swear by God and be considered guiltless.
250. If while an ox is passing on the street (market) some one
push it, and kill it, the owner can set up no claim in the suit
(against the hirer).
251. If an ox be a goring ox, and it shown that he is a gorer, and
he do not bind his horns, or fasten the ox up, and the ox gore
a free-born man and kill him, the owner shall pay one-half a
mina in money.
252. If he kill a man’s slave, he shall pay one-third of a mina.
253. If any one agree with another to tend his eld, give him seed,
entrust a yoke of oxen to him, and bind him to cultivate the
eld, if he steal the corn or plants, and take them for himself,
his hands shall be hewn o .
254. If he take the seed-corn for himself, and do not use the yoke
of oxen, he shall compensate him for the amount of the seed-
corn.
255. If he sublet the man’s yoke of oxen or steal the seed-corn,
planting nothing in the eld, he shall be convicted, and for
each one hundred gan he shall pay sixty gur of corn.
256. If his community will not pay for him, then he shall be placed
in that eld with the cattle (at work).
257. If any one hire a eld laborer, he shall pay him eight gur of
corn per year.
258. If any one hire an ox-driver, he shall pay him six gur of corn
per year.
259. If any one steal a water-wheel from the eld, he shall pay
ve shekels in money to its owner.
260. If any one steal a shadduf (used to draw water from the river
or canal) or a plow, he shall pay three shekels in money.
261. If any one hire a herdsman for cattle or sheep, he shall pay
him eight gur of corn per annum.
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 29
262. If any one, a cow or a sheep : : :
263. If he kill the cattle or sheep that were given to him, he shall
compensate the owner with cattle for cattle and sheep for
sheep.
264. If a herdsman, to whom cattle or sheep have been entrusted
for watching over, and who has received his wages as agreed
upon, and is satis ed, diminish the number of the cattle
or sheep, or make the increase by birth less, he shall make
good the increase or pro t which was lost in the terms of
settlement.
265. If a herdsman, to whose care cattle or sheep have been en-
trusted, be guilty of fraud and make false returns of the
natural increase, or sell them for money, then shall he be
convicted and pay the owner ten times the loss.
266. If the animal be killed in the stable by God ( an accident),
or if a lion kill it, the herdsman shall declare his innocence
before God, and the owner bears the accident in the stable.
267. If the herdsman overlook something, and an accident happen
in the stable, then the herdsman is at fault for the accident
which he has caused in the stable, and he must compensate
the owner for the cattle or sheep.
268. If any one hire an ox for threshing, the amount of the hire is
twenty ka of corn.
269. If he hire an ass for threshing, the hire is twenty ka of corn.
270. If he hire a young animal for threshing, the hire is ten ka of
corn.
271. If any one hire oxen, cart and driver, he shall pay one hun-
dred and eighty ka of corn per day.
272. If any one hire a cart alone, he shall pay forty ka of corn per
day.
273. If any one hire a day laborer, he shall pay him from the New
Year until the fth month (April to August, when days are
long and the work hard) six gerahs in money per day; from
the sixth month to the end of the year he shall give him ve
gerahs per day.
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 30
274. If any one hire a skilled artizan, he shall pay as wages of the
: : : ve gerahs, as wages of the potter ve gerahs, of a tailor
ve gerahs, of : : : gerahs, : : : of a ropemaker four gerahs, of
: : :. gerahs, of a mason : : : gerahs per day.
275. If any one hire a ferryboat, he shall pay three gerahs in money
per day.
276. If he hire a freight-boat, he shall pay two and one-half gerahs
per day.
277. If any one hire a ship of sixty gur, he shall pay one-sixth of
a shekel in money as its hire per day.
278. If any one buy a male or female slave, and before a month
has elapsed the benu-disease be developed, he shall return
the slave to the seller, and receive the money which he had
paid.
279. If any one buy a male or female slave, and a third party claim
it, the seller is liable for the claim.
280. If while in a foreign country a man buy a male or female
slave belonging to another of his own country; if when he
return home the owner of the male or female slave recognize
it: if the male or female slave be a native of the country, he
shall give them back without any money.
281. If they are from another country, the buyer shall declare the
amount of money paid therefor to the merchant, and keep
the male or female slave.
282. If a slave say to his master: \You are not my master,” if they
convict him his master shall cut o his ear.
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 31
THE EPILOGUE
Laws of justice which Hammurabi, the wise king, established. A
righteous law, and pious statute did he teach the land. Ham-
murabi, the protecting king am I. I have not withdrawn myself
from the men, whom Bel gave to me, the rule over whom Mar-
duk gave to me, I was not negligent, but I made them a peace-
ful abiding-place. I expounded all great diculties, I made the
light shine upon them. With the mighty weapons which Zamama
and Ishtar entrusted to me, with the keen vision with which Ea
endowed me, with the wisdom that Marduk gave me, I have up-
rooted the enemy above and below (in north and south), subdued
the earth, brought prosperity to the land, guaranteed security to
the inhabitants in their homes; a disturber was not permitted.
The great gods have called me, I am the salvation-bearing shep-
herd, whose sta is straight, the good shadow that is spread over
my city; on my breast I cherish the inhabitants of the land of
Sumer and Akkad; in my shelter I have let them repose in peace;
in my deep wisdom have I enclosed them. That the strong might
not injure the weak, in order to protect the widows and orphans,
I have in Babylon the city where Anu and Bel raise high their
head, in E-Sagil, the Temple, whose foundations stand rm as
heaven and earth, in order to bespeak justice in the land, to set-
tle all disputes, and heal all injuries, set up these my precious
words, written upon my memorial stone, before the image of me,
as king of righteousness.
The king who ruleth among the kings of the cities am I. My
words are well considered; there is no wisdom like unto mine. By
the command of Shamash, the great judge of heaven and earth,
let righteousness go forth in the land: by the order of Marduk, my
lord, let no destruction befall my monument. In E-Sagil, which
I love, let my name be ever repeated; let the oppressed, who has
a case at law, come and stand before this my image as king of
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 32
righteousness; let him read the inscription, and understand my
precious words: the inscription will explain his case to him; he
will nd out what is just, and his heart will be glad, so that he
will say:
\Hammurabi is a ruler, who is as a father to his subjects,
who holds the words of Marduk in reverence, who has achieved
conquest for Marduk over the north and south, who rejoices the
heart of Marduk, his lord, who has bestowed bene ts for ever and
ever on his subjects, and has established order in the land.”
When he reads the record, let him pray with full heart to
Marduk, my lord, and Zarpanit, my lady; and then shall the
protecting deities and the gods, who frequent E-Sagil, graciously
grant the desires daily presented before Marduk, my lord, and
Zarpanit, my lady.
In future time, through all coming generations, let the king,
who may be in the land, observe the words of righteousness which
I have written on my monument; let him not alter the law of the
land which I have given, the edicts which I have enacted; my
monument let him not mar. If such a ruler have wisdom, and be
able to keep his land in order, he shall observe the words which I
have written in this inscription; the rule, statute, and law of the
land which I have given; the decisions which I have made will this
inscription show him; let him rule his subjects accordingly, speak
justice to them, give right decisions, root out the miscreants and
criminals from this land, and grant prosperity to his subjects.
Hammurabi, the king of righteousness, on whom Shamash
has conferred right (or law) am I. My words are well consid-
ered; my deeds are not equaled; to bring low those that were
high; to humble the proud, to expel insolence. If a succeeding
ruler considers my words, which I have written in this my in-
scription, if he do not annul my law, nor corrupt my words, nor
change my monument, then may Shamash lengthen that king’s
reign, as he has that of me, the king of righteousness, that he
may reign in righteousness over his subjects. If this ruler do not
esteem my words, which I have written in my inscription, if he
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 33
despise my curses, and fear not the curse of God, if he destroy
the law which I have given, corrupt my words, change my mon-
ument, e ace my name, write his name there, or on account of
the curses commission another so to do, that man, whether king
or ruler, patesi, or commoner, no matter what he be, may the
great God (Anu), the Father of the gods, who has ordered my
rule, withdraw from him the glory of royalty, break his scepter,
curse his destiny. May Bel, the lord, who xeth destiny, whose
command can not be altered, who has made my kingdom great,
order a rebellion which his hand can not control; may he let the
wind of the overthrow of his habitation blow, may he ordain the
years of his rule in groaning, years of scarcity, years of famine,
darkness without light, death with seeing eyes be fated to him;
may he (Bel) order with his potent mouth the destruction of his
city, the dispersion of his subjects, the cutting o of his rule,
the removal of his name and memory from the land. May Be-
lit, the great Mother, whose command is potent in E-Kur (the
Babylonian Olympus), the Mistress, who harkens graciously to
my petitions, in the seat of judgment and decision (where Bel
xes destiny), turn his a airs evil before Bel, and put the dev-
astation of his land, the destruction of his subjects, the pouring
out of his life like water into the mouth of King Bel. May Ea,
the great ruler, whose fated decrees come to pass, the thinker of
the gods, the omniscient, who maketh long the days of my life,
withdraw understanding and wisdom from him, lead him to for-
getfulness, shut up his rivers at their sources, and not allow corn
or sustenance for man to grow in his land. May Shamash, the
great Judge of heaven and earth, who supporteth all means of
livelihood, Lord of life-courage, shatter his dominion, annul his
law, destroy his way, make vain the march of his troops, send him
in his visions forecasts of the uprooting of the foundations of his
throne and of the destruction of his land. May the condemnation
of Shamash overtake him forthwith; may he be deprived of water
above among the living, and his spirit below in the earth. May
Sin (the Moon-god), the Lord of Heaven, the divine father, whose
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 34
crescent gives light among the gods, take away the crown and re-
gal throne from him; may he put upon him heavy guilt, great
decay, that nothing may be lower than he. May he destine him
as fated, days, months and years of dominion lled with sighing
and tears, increase of the burden of dominion, a life that is like
unto death. May Adad, the lord of fruitfulness, ruler of heaven
and earth, my helper, withhold from him rain from heaven, and
the ood of water from the springs, destroying his land by famine
and want; may he rage mightily over his city, and make his land
into ood-hills (heaps of ruined cities). May Zamama, the great
warrior, the rst-born son of E-Kur, who goeth at my right hand,
shatter his weapons on the eld of battle, turn day into night for
him, and let his foe triumph over him. May Ishtar, the goddess
of ghting and war, who unfetters my weapons, my gracious pro-
tecting spirit, who loveth my dominion, curse his kingdom in her
angry heart; in her great wrath, change his grace into evil, and
shatter his weapons on the place of ghting and war. May she
create disorder and sedition for him, strike down his warriors,
that the earth may drink their blood, and throw down the piles
of corpses of his warriors on the eld; may she not grant him a life
of mercy, deliver him into the hands of his enemies, and imprison
him in the land of his enemies. May Nergal, the might among
the gods, whose contest is irresistible, who grants me victory, in
his great might burn up his subjects like a slender reedstalk, cut
o his limbs with his mighty weapons, and shatter him like an
earthen image. May Nin-tu, the sublime mistress of the lands,
the fruitful mother, deny him a son, vouchsafe him no name, give
him no successor among men. May Nin-karak, the daughter of
Anu, who adjudges grace to me, cause to come upon his members
in E-kur high fever, severe wounds, that can not be healed, whose
nature the physician does not understand, which he can not treat
with dressing, which, like the bite of death, can not be removed,
until they have sapped away his life.
May he lament the loss of his life-power, and may the great
gods of heaven and earth, the Anunaki, altogether in ict a curse
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 35
and evil upon the con nes of the temple, the walls of this E-barra
(the Sun temple of Sippara), upon his dominion, his land, his
warriors, his subjects, and his troops. May Bel curse him with
the potent curses of his mouth that can not be altered, and may
they come upon him forthwith.
c Paulo J. S. Pereira, MMXI 36

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